Augmented Reality is more than Virtual Reality

This is an excerpt from the references list of the book. As I can't guarantee that the web links mentioned in the book will stay current, I replicate them here and will try to keep them up to date. I may also add some more items. Please notify me if any links have expired.

Please note that this is a very individual selection from the many materials existing on (or rather, around) the topic. It can't be comprehensive and isn't intended to be. It should be a collection of the most remarkable things I found, especially in the recent time, and some papers of more general value. The sequence of occurrence is entirely arbitrary. As Augmented Reality has many varieties, I included some things just for completeness, even though they may have little to do with my approach.
This is also not a list of sources for ideas, but mainly about surrounding materials. Indeed when researching for the book I was absolutely astonished that among the myriads of sources, I still found so little that would specifically contribute to its approach. Yet this provided even more motivation to write it.

[1] Rolf R. Hainich: Echtzeitdiagnostik und Sichtsimulation für die minimal invasive Chirurgie, 1993.
Proposing Augmented Reality in medicine as well as in mass market applications. Vitual devices are proposed, the term "virtualware" is coined for them, location sensing by cameras,
and more crucial topics are discussed. This internal VDI/VDE paper was communicated to federal authorities and a number of companies and institutes.  

[2] Rolf R. Hainich: Integrative 3D Visualization, conference opening lecture, Workshop on Integrative 3D Visualization initiated by the author, Wiesbaden, 1994. A paper already defining and outlining all of augmented reality, and technology solutions.

[3] Steve Mann: Smart Clothing': Wearable Multimedia Computing and `Personal Imaging', 1996.

[4] Tim Suthau, Marcus Vetter, Peter Hassenpflug, Hans-Peter Meinzer, Olaf Hellwich: A concept work for Augmented Reality visualisation based on a medical application in liver surgery IAPRS, Corfu, 2002

[5] Henning Schaefer, Kalibrierungen für Augmented Reality. Diplomarbeit at Technical University of Berlin, 2003.

[6] IBM Continous Data Protection:

[7] Gursel Sonmez et al., A RGB Polymeric Electrochromic Device, University of California, Los Angeles, 2003

[8] Ulrich Hofmann, Beamer für die Westentasche, FhG-ISIT, 2004

[9] Report on 3DAV Exploration

[10] HHI Immersive Meeting Point

[11] George Orwell, 1984, ISBN: 0451524934 (many other sources)

[12] Jeff Hawkins: On Intelligence, Owl Books, 2005, ISBN: 0805078533

[13] US pat. 5,572,343, concerning LCD displays as light valves,

[14] MicroOptical Corporation

[15] Microvision, Inc.

[16] James Fung:

[17] Wearable Computing Library

[18] Universal Display Corporation

[19] Oliver Bimber, Ramesh Raskar: Spatial Augmented Reality: Merging Real and Virtual Worlds, A K Peters, Ltd.,2005, ISBN: 1568812302
A very different approach, see also

[20] Woodrow Barfield (Ed.), Thomas Caudell (Ed.): Fundamentals of Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality,
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000, ISBN: 0805829016

[21] Tobias Hans Hollerer, User interfaces for mobile augmented reality systems, PhD thesis, 2004, Advisor: Steven K Feiner, Columbia University, Published Jun 2004, ISBN: 0496628426

[22] Bolan Jiang, Robust hybrid tracking for outdoor augmented reality, PhD thesis, 2004, Advisor: Ulrich Neumann, University of Southern California, Published Jan 2005 ISBN: 0496876262 (available as e-book)

[23] Grigore C. Burdea, Philippe Coiffet: Virtual Reality Technology, 2nd ed. with CD-ROM, Wiley-IEEE Press 2003, ISBN: 0471360899

[24] MIT wearable computing link collection

[25] Wearable Computing Library, eyetap:

[26] Virtual keys, US pt. 5,767,842 (1992/1998):

[27] Turner, Stuart L., Coupling Retinal Scanning Displays to the Human Vision System: Visual Response and Engineering Considerations. PhD thesis, University of Washington, 2000

[28] GP Markham: The ORIGINAL Illustrated Catalog Of ACME Products. have fun !

[29] EST-Engineering System Technologies GmbH&Co KG

[30] Tibor Balogh et al.: A Scalable Holographic Display for Interactive Graphics Applications. In Proc. IEEE VR 2005'Balogh:2005:SHD'

Light Blue Optics / Cambridge University, Holographic projection

[32] Jürgen Herre et al.: An Introduction To MP3 Surround

[33] CRLO Displays Ltd., high resolution microdisplays

[34] Claude Shannon, Communication in the Presence of Noise, 1948
Reprint: Proceedings of the IEEE, VOL. 86, NO. 2, Feb. 1998,

[35] Oliver Bimber, L. Miguel Encarnação, and André Stork: Seamless integration of virtual reality in habitual workplaces
A website about some fundamental research projects in augmented reality.

[36] Michael L. Huebschman, Bala Munjuluri, and Harold R. Garner: Dynamic holographic 3-D image projection; see also:

[37] C.E.Rash (ed.): Helmet mounted Displays in Aviation, SPIE Press Monograph,Vol. PM93,ISBN0819439169, also:

[38] Fraunhofer FIT -AR-NAV

[39] Metcalfe, R.M., Boggs, D.R.: Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks. Coomm. ACM, 7/1976
(see also US Patent # 4.063.220,

[40] Project ARVIKA:

[41] Tim Suthau: Augmented Reality - Positionsgenaue Einblendung räumlicher Information in ein See-Through Head Mounted Display für die Medizin am Beispiel der Leberchirurgie.
Dissertation at TU Berlin, to appear, 2006

[42] Thorsteinn Halldorsson: Farbdisplays und holographische Bildschirme
EADS- Corporate Research Center, Ottobrunn. Darmstädter Kolloquium für Messtechnik, DAKOM 2005.

[43] Abramson, N.: The ALOHA System - Another Alternative for
Computer Communications. AFIPS Conf. Proc. vol.37 (1970), p.281-285

[44] Lars Bönnen: FOHMD: The Fiber-Optic Helmet mounted Display and its Applications. CAE, Stolberg, Germany. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on integrative 3D visualization, Wiesbaden, 1994

[45] Jim Vallino's Augmented Reality Page (link collection)

[46] Ronald Azuma's pages:

[47] Wikipedia article on Augmented Reality, contains many more links

[48] George Ou ( Is encryption really crackable? [01.05.2006 22:29:28]
A short and thorough sweep-out of myths about "cracked" encryption

[49] Cyclon Systems, UK,
manufacturer of wearable cameras for police, military and other services

[50] HMD comparison

[51] Holoeye Photonics AG, spatial light modulators

[52] LC Technologies, inc.: The Eygaze communication system

[53] Mirage Innovations, Manufacturer of the LughtVu glasses,

[54] Liteye Systems, producer of miniature displays

[55] NVIS, manufacturer of head mounted displays

[56] Arrington Research, manufacturer of head mounted eye trackers.

[57] Thomas Schnell, Applying Eye Tracking as an Alternative Apprpach for Activation of Controls and Functions in Aircraft

[58] Peter B.L.Meijer, vOICe,

[59] Larry Leifer and David Grossman:
Blind Navigator: using object recognition to enhance blind mobility

[60] eMagin head mounted displays

[61] Qualcomm, iMoD display technology

[62] Jan Fischer,   Interaktive Spezifikation von Domänen und Detektion partieller dynamischer Verdeckungen in Augmented-Reality Umgebungen, PhD thesis
An english article: J. Fischer, H. Regenbrecht, G. Baratoff, Detecting Dynamic Occlusion in front of Static Backgrounds for AR Scenes, EGVE, Zurich, 2003

[63] Think-A-Move, Ltd., InnerVoice Pro

[64] Michael W. Halle, "Multiple Viewpoint Rendering for 3-Dimensional Displays", Ph.D. Thesis, Program in Media Arts and Sciences, MIT 1997,

[65] Mark Lucente, Diffraction-Specific Fringe Computation for Electro-Holography, PhD thesis, MIT1994,

[66] Cyberkinetics Neurotechnology Systems inc.

[67] Donoghue Labs, neuro-interfaces

[68] Privacy and Human Rights

[69] UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights

[70] Cryptool, free cryptography learning software by Deutsche Bank. Siegen University, TU Darmstadt, Secude, FZI

[71] Bernhard Esslinger (Ed), 2006 The Cryptool Script (cryptography)

[72] Steven Feiner, links on user interfaces for mobile & wearable computing,

[73] Durand R. Begault, 3-D Sound for Virtual Reality and Multimedia, ISBN: 0120847353

[74] Wayne Piekarski, Interactive 3D Modelling in Outdoor Augmented Reality Worlds, PhD thesis,

[75] Electronic Frontier Foundation, working to protect your digital rights.

[76] Thilo Womelsdorf et al.: Dynamic shifts of visual receptive fields in cortical area MT by spatial attention. Nature, 2006

[77] Kiyoshi Kiyokawa 2003, An Occlusion-Capable Optical See-through Head Mount Displayfor Collaboration of Co-located Multiple Users (for completeness; the book's approach to mask displays it entirely different!)

[78] Rolf R. Hainich, An Improved Ethernet for Real Time Applications, Real Time Data, Versailles 1982

[79] Rolf R. Hainich, Backoff Strategies for CSMA/CD with Real Time Appli-cations, internat. conf. Kommunikation in Verteilten Systemen, GI/NTG 1983

[80] The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG)

[81] Peter K. Kaiser, The joy of Visual Perception : A Web Book

[82] Eyes Tea, Berlin/Boston, with an interesting linklist at

[83] R. Ziegler, P. Kaufmann, M. Gross : A Framework for Holographic Scene Representation and Image Synthesis. To appear in ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Sketch, Boston, USA, 30.July - 3.August, 2006

[84] Aurora Systems Co.,Ltd., Manufacturer of high resolution LCOS micro displays

[85] Augmented Reality: Hyperlinking to the Real World, TechNewsWorld article with a citation of the author, Nov. 2006

[86] Fraunhofer IDMT - Ultrafast-Eyetracker

[87] Zeiss - Head Mounted Displays project

[88] SeeReal Holographic Display Technology

[89] Hinckley, K., Sinclair, M., Hanson, E., Szeliski, R., Conway, M., The VideoMouse: A Camera-Based Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Input Device, ACM UIST'99 Symposium on User Interface Software & Technology, pp. 103-112. [PDF]

[90] R. Ziegler, S. Bucheli, L.Ahrenberg, M.Magnor, M.Gross: A Bidirectional Light Field - Hologram Transform. To appear in Computer Graphics Forum 26(3), Proceedings of Eurographics 2007

[91] New Scale Technologies, Inc. - Manufacturaer of piezo electric micro motors.

[92] FhG-IPMS (Fraunhofer Institute for integrated photonic microsystems): cutting edge research on micro scanners and micro mechanical light modulators.

[93] S.C. Barden, J.A. Arns and W.S. Colburn: Volume-phase holographic gratings and their potential for astronomical applications, Proc. SPIE 3355, pp. 866--876, 1998

[94] D. H. Close and A. Graube, "Holographic Lens for Pilot's Head-up Display", NTIS Rep. AD/787605, 1974.

[95] A. Lu , R. Maciejewski and D.S. Ebert: Volume Composition Using Eye Tracking Data. Eurographics/ IEEE-VGTC Symposium on Visualization (2006).

[96] US patent 5682210: "Eye contact lens video display system"

[97] Erik Sofge: Souped-Up Contact Lenses Promise On-Demand Bionic Eyesight. In: Popular Mechanics, April 2008

[98] Noah Shachtman: Pentagon: 'Augment' Reality with 'Videogame' Contact Lenses. WIRED Blog Network, March 2008.

[99] Ng, Duval et al.: Light Field Photography with a Hand-Held Plenoptic Camera. Stanford Tech Report CTSR 2005-02

[100] Photosynth picture merging technology

[101] K. S. Beev, K.N. Beeva, S. H. Sainov: Materials for Holographic 3DTV Display Applications. In: H.M. Ozaktas, L. Onural (Ed.) Three-Dimensional Television, Springer 2008, ISBN 978-3-540-72531-2

[102] Frankowski, G., Hanich, R.: DLP-Based 3D Metrology by Structured Light or Projected Fringe Technology. Proc. SPIE Photonics West 2009.

[103] O. Cakmakci, S. Vo, S. Vogl, R. Spindelbalker, A. Ferscha, J. P. Rolland: Optical Free-Form Surfaces in Off-Axis Head-Worn Display Design. Proceedings of The 7th IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented reality, ISMAR 2008, Cambridge, Sept.15-18, 2008.

[104] Hyung Min Park, Seok Han Lee, Jong Soo Choi: Wearable Aug-mented Reality System using Gaze Interaction. Proceedings of The 7th IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented reality, ISMAR 2008, Cambridge, Sept.15-18, 2008

[105] Rolf R. Hainich: New approaches to 3D displays. Guest lecture, University of Weimar, 2007

[106] Rolf R. Hainich: The End of Hardware, 1st Ed., April 2006

[107] Rolf R. Hainich: The End of Hardware, 2nd Ed., October 2006

[108] Superwise Technologies AG, Apollo Engine

[109] P. Surman, K. Hopf, I. Sexton, W. K. Lee, R. Bates: Solving the 3D problem - The History and Development of Viable Domestic 3D Displays. In: H.M. Ozaktas, L. Onural (Ed.) Three-Dimensional Television, Springer 2008, ISBN 978-3-540-72531-2

[110] Fourth Dimension Displays, manufacturer of LCOS displays for near-eye-systems

[111] A. Koz, G. A. Triantafyllidis, A. A: Alatan: 3D Watermarking: Tech-niques and directions. In: H.M. Ozaktas, L. Onural (Ed.) Three-Dimensional Television, Springer 2008, ISBN 978-3-540-72531-2

[112] A. Smolic, P. Merkle, K. Müller, C: Fehn, P. Knauff, T. Wiegand: Compression of Multi-View Video and Associated Data. In: H.M. Ozaktas, L. Onural (Ed.) Three-Dimensional Television, Springer 2008, ISBN 978-3-540-72531-2

[113] Brombach, B., Bruns, E. and Bimber, O.: Subobject Detection through Spatial Relationships on Mobile Phones. Submitted to Interna-tional Conference of Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI2009), 2008

[114] E.Stoykova, J. Harizanova, V. Sainov: Pattern Projection Profilome-try for 3D Coordinates Measurement of Dynamic Scenes. In: H.M. Ozaktas, L. Onural (Ed.) Three-Dimensional Television, Springer 2008, ISBN 978-3-540-72531-2

[115] Physik Instrumente (manufacturer of piezo motors).

[116] Saxby, G.: Practical Holography, Prentice Hall, 1988

[117] Pat. appl. DE102007023920 (Siemens)

[118] ISTAR-project: Interactive See-Through Augmented Reality Dis-plays.

[119] Wolter, A.: Untersuchungen zu einem hochauflösenden Flächen-lichtmodulator mit einstellbarem Profil einer Flüssigkeitsoberfläche zur optischen Musterwiedergabe. Dissertation, Fachbereich 9 , Universität Duisburg, 2001.

[120] Rolf R. Hainich: Universal Caching with Hash or Random UUIDs (2004).

[121] R. Gvili, A. Kaplan, E. Ofek and G. Yahav: Depth keying. 3DV Systems Ltd.,2002.

[122] Rohstoffe für Zukunftstechnologien, 2009. ISBN 978-3-8167-7957-5

[123] Rolf R. Hainich: Near Eye Displays - a look into the Christmas Ball. Keynote Lecture, 7th IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented reality, ISMAR 2008, Cambridge, Sept.15-18, 2008. 

[124] Tissaphern Mirfakhrai, John D. W. Madden, and Ray H. Baughman. "Polymer Artificial Muscles". Materials Today 10:4 (2007), 30{38. 84, 493 

[125] NASA website on electroactive polymer (artificial muscles):

If you are interested in programming virtual and augmented reality applications, also have a look at this list of books about virtual reality and programming

and as software resources, the Open Source Computer Vision Library or the OpenSG library

Some nice visualizations of augmented reality ideas, beyond what a book can tell (even if not always thought to the end) can be found on YouTube






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